Hertford Arts Hub have recently engaged me to shoot a number of events to promote their organisation and activities, including exhibitions, activities and talks, much of it about the artist Alan Davie, who lived in Hertford during his latter years.
I was also asked to photograph some of his artworks for use in leaflets and other printed matter. These paintings were on display at a temporary exhibition in the town.
Unfortunately, lighting conditions were far from ideal as can be seen from the picture above. It was clear that I was going to have to chose an overcast day to shoot the works, although even then the lighting was not going to the balanced (I chose not to use my own lighting as the client had limited funding).
I shot the photos using a tripod with an aperture setting of f8 and focal length of 50mm. The ISO was set to 100.
Post processing consisted of some dodging to compensate for any uneven lighting along with levels adjustments.
Most of the paintings were unframed. Only a couple were behind glass – one with a matt finish and the other with conventional glass. I shot all the pictures with a polarising filter.
Delivering only the best images from a shoot is standard practice.
Photographers take a wide range of shots on any assignment to deliver the best results. However, this doesn’t mean that the client will see all of those shots. Typically the photographer will select the best compositions for editing and final submission. Shots that are discarded can include those there individuals may be blinking or momentarily not their best, images where the lighting was poor, blurred and shaky photos (yes, it happens even to the pro) and any images that do not meet the photographers high standards.
I recently uploaded a video of images taken during this year’s festival season. It’s a selection of shots from events such as the Stortford Music Festival, Wilkestock, Woodyfest, Bash In The Barn, the Musical Mystery Tour and Folkstock – 12 days of shooting in all.
The video is set to a soundtrack of Bound To Nowhere by My Little Empire, who are from Borehamwood and regular performers at Wilkestock.
All sorts of businesses can benefit from using photographic material to promote their offering and I particularly enjoy working with small local businesses and the self-employed. One such individual who contacted me recently was fitness instructor Fiona Walsh, who runs a fitness class for senior citizens in a local church hall. Fiona was looking for material to use on her website and in printed material.
I visited her class in Hertford Heath Church Hall where I took both posed groups shots and informal photos of the class in session. I spent an hour with the class whilst Fiona went through her usual routine, with me quietly on the sidelines capturing the various exercises she does with the class, as well as the one-to-one help she provides.
About a week after the session a CD of finished images was delivered. Fiona commented: “The photos you took are super. They are going to be very useful for marketing my classes. Thanks very much!”
It can be very confusing trying to understand the significance of image size, resolution and file size, and how they relate to each other. Throw in pixel densities such as DPI and PPI as well and you could be forgiven if your head starts spinning.
It helps to start with the basic building block of any digital image – the pixel.
A pixel is a dot. It’s a single point of light that has two main properties – colour and brightness. You’ll find these pixels everywhere – on computer monitors, TVs and mobile phones, for example. When you combine these pixels in to rows and columns you can form a picture. These rows and columns of pixels can also be arranged on an image sensor in a camera to capture images. If you have an arrangement of 3000 columns and 2000 rows of pixels, you can form an image 3000×2000 pixels. We could refer to this as the image size or image dimensions. We could also describe it as a 6 megapixel image (3,000 x 2,000 = 6,000,000). This is what we call image resolution. You could also think of it as quality. A higher resolution image has more pixels, producing a higher quality image. More pixels means more picture information.
As well as image resolution, you might also come across screen resolution and print resolution. These refer to the density of display pixels on a screen or printed matter. Typically a computer display will have a pixel density of 90-100 pixels per inch (PPI). Printers on the other hand will pack 300 pixels in to an inch – and will refer to them as “dots” not “pixels” – so you will hear about print resolutions of 300DPI or 600DPI (higher and lower values may also be used). Obviously, the tighter the dots or pixels are packed together, the higher the image quality. If we display our 6 megapixel image on a monitor with a pixel density of 100 PPI, it will have a displayed size of 30 x 20 inches. However, if we print the same image on a 300DPI printer, it’ll only be 10 x 6.6 inches.
I learned the basics of photography as a teenager, when I bought my first proper camera – a Zenith E. This was a solid and popular no-nonsense 35mm SLR from Russia. There are no fancy settings or buttons on the Zenith, just a light meter, a dial for selecting the shutter speed and a ring on the lens to select aperture. In the viewfinder was a little needle that indicated if there was too much or too little light for the current exposure settings. The idea was to adjust either the shutter speed or aperture to achieve the correct exposure. It was an excellent beginners’ camera that provided the perfect platform for understanding exposure and the relationship between aperture and shutter speed.
Despite the fact the modern cameras come with a wealth of automatic settings and modes, I still often prefer to shoot in manual, allowing me to select not only the aperture and shutter speeds but also the ISO (light sensitivity) and white balance. This means that I can choose the best configuration for the particular scene that I’m shooting, rather than letting the camera make a decision based on a programmed formula.
Cameras of course can’t see. They can only make judgements based on the light entering the camera through the lens. They have no idea if the image is a portrait, a sports action shot or a landscape. Certainly they can feature modes that give some indication to the camera’s software of the type of shot being taken, but they’re still generic conditions and therefore predetermined settings. They still don’t take full account of the particular scene or the specific requirements of the photographer.
By way of an example, the image above was taken at an aperture of f2.8 to give a shallow depth of field, with a shutter speed of 1/50th sec at ISO200. The light source was a fluorescent tube. If the camera had been set to automatic it would have chosen a smaller aperture and underexposed the image due to the brightness of the white background. As well as manually controlling the exposure I also set the focus point myself, rather than letting the camera’s autofocus system decide which part of the image should be sharpest. This allowed me to guide the viewers eye to the mode dial on the subject camera.
This is a selection of photography books that I’ve accumulated over time. I use them mostly for browsing or reference, although I have read the odd one or two cover-to-cover. I’d recommend any one of them to anyone interested in photography.
Photoshop CS6: The Missing Manual Published by O’Reilly, The Missing Manuals series is a highly regarded collection covering a wide variety of software products (and increasingly hardware and wider technical issues and practices, offering a smarter alternative to The Dummies… Guides). This 800 page volume covers everything from The Basics to advanced photoediting and image creation for the web. It’s a great reference work that’s well laid out and simple to understand.
PhotoIdeaIndex:Things I picked this up at a secondhand bookshop in Letchworth. It’s a collection of mostly abstract images of everyday scenes. It’s a great book for ideas and how to train the eye to see things in a different way. Each chapter covers a different theme, concept or approach to photographing objects or landscapes.
50 Photo Icons This book takes a historical look at the background to 50 iconic images, starting with Niépce’s 1827 View From The Study Window, the earliest known surviving photograph. The weighty tome goes on to discuss a further 49 images up to the September 11th attack on The Twin Towers. This is a book about images and their context, and how they relate to the period they were taken.
The New Manual of Photography Just one of 30 books by award-winning photographer John Hedgecoe, this book covers every aspect of photography, from the construction of digital cameras, lenses, filters, exposure, composition, lighting and retouching. It’s an excellent book for both beginners and experienced photographers.
A effect commonly used in the digital darkroom is that of lomography. This is an effect that emulates the results produced by the Russian Lomo camera, which typically gives saturated cross-processed images with a vignette. Other features can include light leaks and lens flare.
You can see the original photo by hovering your mouse over the image above.
You’ll often find Lomo filters in photo editing software, such as Picasa. It is also the basis of many Instagram images. The look is often thought of as retro.
I sometimes get asked about who owns photographs – the photographer or the client? Under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988 all rights are owned by the person who created the image, ie the photographer, even when that image has been commissioned by a client.
Copyright exists by default as soon as an image is created. It doesn’t need to be registered or formalised, nor is it affected by whether or not money changes hands. There is also no requirement to label or identify the copyright in an image.
A photographer will typically grant a licence to the client for use of the images. This can often be an informal arrangement that allows more or less free use or defined by a specific form of words that sets out the precise uses that the photo can be put to. The uses (or activities as they’re sometimes known) that a copyright holder controls can include printing, copying, publication (commercial or otherwise) and display.
In practice, little of this has any impact on my own customers. I am happy for people to copy and distribute their images freely, asking only that I receive credit for my work. However, if the images are resold then there may be financial implications beyond the initial charge and licensing conditions may kick in.
None of the above guidance overrides any specific licensing terms agree with a client. For more information about copyright you can visit the government’s Intellectual Property Office website. Alternatively, you can read about some of the myths and misconceptions surrounding copyright at Hall Ellis Solicitors’ website – 14 Copyright Myths.